The kidneys are replaced by multiple cysts which on the left-hand side are large; the ureters are dilated
and tortuous and the bladder, seen as the partly cystic mass in the centre is hypoplastic. The histology
of the lesions is that of renal dysplasia with large cysts (Type II polycystic kidney of Osanthanondh and
This child was born at term; the baby did not breathe spontaneously despite intubation and
oxygen; X-rays showed bilateral pneumothoraces.